Ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer is a cancerous growth arising from the ovary. Symptoms are frequently very subtle early on and may include: bloating, pelvic pain, difficulty eating and frequent urination, and are easily confused with other illnesses. Most (more than 90%) ovarian cancers are classified as “epithelial” and are believed to arise from the surface (epithelium) of the ovary. However, some evidence suggests that the fallopian tube could also be the source of some ovarian cancers. Since the ovaries and tubes are closely related to each other, it is thought that these fallopian cancer cells can mimic ovarian cancer. Other types may arise from the egg cells (germ cell tumor) or supporting cells. These cancers are grouped into the category of gynecologic cancer. In the United States each year 82,000 women are diagnosed with gynecologic cancer.

Signs and symptoms of ovarian cancer are frequently absent early on and when they exist they may be subtle. In most cases, the symptoms persist for several months before being recognized and diagnosed. Most women with ovarian cancer report one or more symptoms such as abdominal pain or discomfort, an abdominal mass, bloating, back pain, urinary urgency, constipation, tiredness and a range of other non-specific symptoms, as well as more specific symptoms such as pelvic pain, abnormal vaginal bleeding or involuntary weight loss. There can be a build-up of fluid (ascites) in the abdominal cavity.

A prospective case-control study of 1,709 women visiting primary care clinics found that the combination of bloating, increased abdominal size, and urinary symptoms was found in 43% of those with ovarian cancer but in only 8% of those presenting to primary care clinics. In most cases, the exact cause of ovarian cancer remains unknown. The risk of developing ovarian cancer appears to be affected by several factors. Older women, and in those who have a first or second degree relative with the disease, have an increased risk of having ovarian cancer. Hereditary forms of ovarian cancer can be caused by mutations in specific genes (most notably BRCA1 and BRCA2, but also in genes for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal or colon cancer). Infertile women and those with a condition calledendometriosis, those who have never been pregnant and those who use postmenopausal estrogen replacement therapy are at increased risk of ovarian cancer. The more children a woman has, the lower her risk of ovarian cancer. Early age at first pregnancy, older age of final pregnancy and the use of low dose hormonal contraception have also been shown to have a protective effect. The risk is also lower in women who have had their fallopian tubes blocked surgically (tubal ligation). Ovarian cancer is reduced in women after tubal ligation; there are natural means to supplement one’s diet with fucoidan which can also lead to prevention of all forms of cancer, be it ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, colon cancer, skin cancer, breast cancer, and many other forms of cancer.

Fucoidan, when ingested in a suspended matrix gel promotes cell apoptosis and cancer apoptosis and this leads to prevention and elimination of cancer, be it ovarian cancer, breast cancer, or any other form of cell mutation elimination. Apoptosis is promoted by fucoidan and its ability to destroy unhealthy cells without negatively impacting healthy cells, thereby not jeopardizing one’s immune system but instead strengthening the immune system.

Women who have had children are less likely to develop ovarian cancer than women who have not, and breastfeeding may also reduce the risk of certain types of ovarian cancer. Tubal ligation and hysterectomy reduce the risk and removal of both tubes and ovaries (bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy) dramatically reduces the risk of not only ovarian cancer but also breast cancer. A hysterectomy which includes the removal of the ovaries has a one-third reduced risk of developing ovarian cancer, it also has no higher risk of developing other types of cancer, heart disease or hip fractures, researchers from the University of California at San Francisco revealed in the journal Archives of Internal Medicine. Of course a hysterectomy is not at the forefront of any women’s to do list unless it’s a necessity. Prevention of cancer, including ovarian cancer is critical but the method for prevention with ingested fucoidan in suspended gel is a pleasant experience and strengthening the immune system to promote cell apoptosis and cancer apoptosis is simply wise when considering where the alternatives of not ingesting UMI with fucoidan can lead to with diseases including cancer.

A study in The Lancet suggests that tubal ligation can reduce the risk of hereditary ovarian cancer by 72 per cent in women who carry the BRCA1 gene. The use of oral contraceptives (birth control pills) for five years or more decreases the risk of ovarian cancer in later life by 50%. Diagnosis of ovarian cancer starts with a physical examination (including a pelvic examination), a blood test (for CA-125 and sometimes other markers), and transvaginal ultrasound. The diagnosis must be confirmed with surgery to inspect the abdominal cavity, take biopsies (tissue samples for microscopic analysis) and look for cancer cells in the abdominal fluid.

Ovarian cancer at its early stages(I/II) is difficult to diagnose until it spreads and advances to later stages (III/IV). This is because most symptoms are non-specific and thus of little use in diagnosis. The serumBHCG level should be measured in any female in whom pregnancy is a possibility. In addition, serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) should be measured in young girls and adolescents with suspected ovarian tumors because the younger the patient, the greater the likelihood of a malignant germ cell tumor.

When an ovarian malignancy is included in the list of diagnostic possibilities, a limited number of laboratory tests are indicated. A complete blood count (CBC) and serum electrolyte test should be obtained in all patients. A blood test called CA-125 is useful in differential diagnosis and in follow up of the disease, but it by itself has not been shown to be an effective method to screen for early-stage ovarian cancer due to its unacceptable low sensitivity and specificity.

The new test approved by the FDA in 2011, OVA1 improves ovarian cancer detection over CA125 blood test and clinical assessment. An article published in the June 2011 issue of Obstetrics & Gynecologyshowed that adding OVA1 to a physician’s preoperative assessment of a woman’s ovarian mass would identify more ovarian and ovarian related cancers, than a physician’s preoperative assessment alone. OVA1 is intended only for women, 18 years and older, who are already selected for surgery because of their pelvic mass. It is not intended for ovarian cancer screening or for a definitive diagnosis of ovarian cancer. OVA1 was developed in conjunction with researchers at the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore.

Current research is looking at ways to combine tumor markers proteomics along with other indicators of disease (i.e. radiology and/or symptoms) to improve accuracy. The challenge in such an approach is that the disparate prevalence of ovarian cancer means that even testing with very high sensitivity and specificity will still lead to a number of false positive results (i.e. performing surgical procedures in which cancer is not found intra-operatively). However, the contributions of proteomics are still in the early stages and require further refining. Current studies on proteomics mark the beginning of a paradigm shift towards individually tailored therapy.

To definitively diagnose ovarian cancer, a surgical procedure to take a look into the abdomen is required. This can be an open procedure (laparotomy, incision through the abdominal wall) or keyhole surgery(laparoscopy). During this procedure, suspicious areas will be removed and sent for microscopic analysis. Fluid from the abdominal cavity can also be analysed for cancerous cells. If there is cancer, this procedure can also determine its spread (which is a form of tumor staging).

The choice to prevent cancer such as ovarian cancer is one which an individual has options to reduce the likelihood of being diagnosed with ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, leukemia, skin cancer, lung cancer or for any other cancer for the most part. The question is are people changing their life in time to avoid getting ovarian cancer, breast cancer, or many other forms of cancer? Prevention is made easy with fucoidan by strengthening the immune system to prevent getting cancer in the first place and if by chance you have already been diagnosed with ovarian cancer or breast cancer, or any other form of cancer, get fucoidan gel packets or gel pods named UMI and eliminate ovarian cancer, breast cancer, or so many other forms of cancer which can be eliminated with a fucoidan strengthened immune system.

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